Abiogenic Oil – Is BP Drilling for a Renewable Resource?
“In September 2009, the [Deepwater Horizon] rig drilled the deepest oil well in history at a vertical depth of 35,050 ft (10,683 m) and measured depth of 35,055 ft (10,685 m) in the Tiber Oil Field at Keathley Canyon block 102, approximately 250 miles (400 km) southeast of Houston, in 4,132 feet (1,259 m) of water. On 20 April 2010, while drilling at the Macondo Prospect, an explosion on the rig caused by a blowout killed 11 crewmen and ignited a fireball visible from 40 miles (64 km) away.” (Source)
Oil (petroleum) Basics
“How was oil formed?
“Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants (diatoms) that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment before the dinosaurs. Over millions of years, the remains of these animals and plants were covered by layers of sand and silt. Heat and pressure from these layers helped the remains turn into what we today call crude oil. The word “petroleum” means “rock oil” or “oil from the earth.”
Read more: Oil (petroleum) Basics – http://www.eia.gov/KIDS/energy.cfm?page=oil_home-basics-k.cfm
Oil Comes from Dinosaurs – Fact or Fiction?
“The notion that petroleum or crude oil comes from dinosaurs is fiction. Surprised? Oil formed from the remains of marine plants and animals that lived millions of years ago, even before the dinosaurs. The tiny organisms fell to the bottom of the sea. Bacterial decomposition of the plants and animals removed most of the oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur from the matter, leaving behind a sludge made up mainly of carbon and hydrogen. As the oxygen was removed from the detritus, decomposition slowed. Over time the remains became covered by layers upon layers of sand and silt. As the depth of the sediment reached or exceeded 10,000 feet, pressure and heat changed the remaining compounds into the hydrocarbons and other organic compounds that form crude oil and natural gas.”
Read more: Oil Comes from Dinosaurs – Fact or Fiction? – http://chemistry.about.com/b/2013/05/09/oil-comes-from-dinosaurs-fact-or-fiction.htm
The Mysterious Origin and Supply of Oil
“The idea that petroleum is formed from dead organic matter is known as the “biogenic theory” of petroleum formation and was first proposed by a Russian scientist almost 250 years ago.
“In the 1950’s, however, a few Russian scientists began questioning this traditional view and proposed instead that [abiogenic] petroleum could form naturally deep inside the Earth.
“Abiogenic sources of oil have been found, but never in commercially profitable amounts. The controversy isn’t over whether naturally forming oil reserves exist, said Larry Nation of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. It’s over how much they contribute to Earth’s overall reserves and how much time and effort geologists should devote to seeking them out.”
Read more: The Mysterious Origin and Supply of Oil – http://www.livescience.com/9404-mysterious-origin-supply-oil.html
More evidence for “Abiotic” oil
“Oil is being found at depths of 30,000 feet. The deepest fossils known are from 16,000 feet. How could oil form from fossils if some oil is 14,000 feet below any of the deepest fossils?”
Read more: More evidence for “Abiotic” oil – http://www.greenparty.ca/blogs/12489/2012-08-28/more-evidence-abiotic-oil
BP’s Tiber Find Underscores Challenges of Deepwater Exploration
“The Tiber well, about 250 miles (400 kilometers) south east of Houston, was drilled to about 35,055 feet (10,685 meters), making it the world’s deepest exploration well to date, the London-based company said today. It may contain as many as 3 billion barrels, according to BP. Everest stands 29,029 feet tall in comparison.”
Read more: BP’s Tiber Find Underscores Challenges of Deepwater Exploration – http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=ak0cLK9YuS1E
Deepwater Horizon Drills World’s Deepest Oil & Gas Well (over 35,000 ft)
“Transocean Ltd. (NYSE: RIG) announced that its ultra-deepwater semisubmersible rig Deepwater Horizon recently drilled the deepest oil and gas well ever while working for BP and its co-owners on the Tiber well in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Working with BP, the Transocean crews on the Deepwater Horizon drilled the well to 35,050 vertical depth and 35,055 feet measured depth (MD), or more than six miles, while operating in 4,130 feet of water.”
Read more: Deepwater Horizon Drills World’s Deepest Oil & Gas Well – http://www.deepwater.com/fw/main/IDeepwater-Horizon-i-Drills-Worlds-Deepest-Oil-and-Gas-Well-419C151.html
See also: Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells (= 5,000 ft) – http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_crd_welldep_s1_a.htm
Plugging Macondo, the story of how the runaway Deepwater Horizon oil well was finally brought under control
“The goal was to get the relief well parallel to and near the original well, then intersect the runaway well at a depth near 18,000 feet, which is just above the oil reservoir.”
Read more: Plugging Macondo, the story of how the runaway Deepwater Horizon oil well was finally brought under control – http://tinyurl.com/lpak323
Though burned by gulf spill, BP is drilling far deeper
“One BP field in the Gulf of Mexico, called Tiber, makes the Macondo field that the Deepwater Horizon rig was probing look like a simple puddle of oil. It is thought to hold 20 times as much oil as Macondo. At 35,000 feet below the sea floor — 6.6 miles into the Earth’s crust — it is about twice as deep.”
Read more: Though burned by gulf spill, BP is drilling far deeper – http://www.dallasnews.com/business/energy/20131208-though-burned-by-gulf-spill-bp-is-drilling-far-deeper.ece
Crude Oil – First US Oil Well (69 ft)
“The Petroleum Age began with the 1854 discovery of a new process to make kerosene from heavy crude oil. In August 1859 on Oil Creek near Titusville, Pennsylvania, Edwin L. Drake drilled down 69 feet and struck oil, creating the nation’s first oil well. Oil quickly proved to be a cheap, abundant and reliable feedstock for the manufacture of kerosene. Its use increased dramatically throughout the country, sparking an economic boom.”
Read more: Crude Oil – http://www.window.state.tx.us/specialrpt/energy/nonrenewable/crude.php
Kola Superdeep Borehole (40,230 ft)
“The Kola Superdeep Borehole (Russian: Кольская сверхглубокая скважина, Kolskaya sverkhglubokaya skvazhina) is the result of a scientific drilling project of the Soviet Union in the Pechengsky District, on the Kola Peninsula. The project attempted to drill as deep as possible into the Earth’s crust. Drilling began on 24 May 1970 using the Uralmash-4E, and later the Uralmash-15000 series drilling rig. A number of boreholes were drilled by branching from a central hole. The deepest, SG-3, reached 12,262 metres (40,230 ft) (2.21 leagues) in 1989, and is the deepest hole ever drilled, and the deepest artificial point on Earth…
“The Kola Superdeep Borehole was the deepest and longest borehole in the world for nearly 20 years. However, in May 2008, a new record for borehole length was established by the extended-reach drilling (ERD) well BD-04A, which was drilled by Transocean for Maersk Oil in the Al Shaheen oil field in Qatar. It was drilled to 12,289 m (40,318 ft), with a record horizontal reach of 10,902 m (35,768 ft), in only 36 days.”
“On 28 January 2011, Exxon Neftegas Ltd., operator of the Sakhalin-I project, drilled the world’s longest extended-reach well offshore on the Russian island of Sakhalin. It has surpassed the length of both the Al Shaheen well and the Kola borehole. The Odoptu OP-11 well reached a measured total depth of 12,345 m (40,502 ft) and a horizontal displacement of 11,475 m (37,648 ft). Exxon Neftegas completed the well in 60 days.
“However, in terms of depth below the surface, the Kola Superdeep Borehole still retains the world record as of 24th December 2013.”
Read more: Kola Superdeep Borehole – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kola_Superdeep_Borehole
Abiogenic petroleum origin
“Abiogenic petroleum origin is a hypothesis that was proposed as an alternative mechanism of petroleum origin. According to the abiogenic hypothesis, petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. Supporters of the abiogenic hypothesis suggest that a great deal more petroleum exists on Earth than commonly thought, and that petroleum may originate from carbon-bearing fluids that migrate upward from the mantle.”
Read more: Abiogenic petroleum origin – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abiotic_petroleum
Hydrocarbons Could Form Deep In the Earth From Methane, Not Animal Remains
“Study lends credence to abiogenic petroleum theory, which means there may be more oil in our future than we thought…”
Read more: Hydrocarbons Could Form Deep In the Earth From Methane, Not Animal Remains – http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2011-04/hydrocarbons-could-form-deep-earth-no-dead-animal-ingredients-study-says
Abiogenic Deep Origin of Hydrocarbons and Oil and Gas Deposits Formation
“The theory of the abiogenic deep origin of hydrocarbons recognizes that the petroleum is a primordial material of deep origin [Kutcherov, Krayushkin 2010]. This theory explains that hydrocarbon compounds generate in the asthenosphere of the Earth and migrate through the deep faults into the crust of the Earth. There they form oil and gas deposits in any kind of rock in any kind of the structural position (Fig. 1). Thus the accumulation of oil and gas is…”
Read more: Abiogenic Deep Origin of Hydrocarbons and Oil and Gas Deposits Formation – http://www.intechopen.com/books/hydrocarbon/abiogenic-deep-origin-of-hydrocarbons-and-oil-and-gas-deposits-formation
Hydrocarbons in Deep Earth?
“Oil and gas started out as living organisms that died, were compressed, and were heated under layers of sediments in the Earths crust. Scientists have debated for years whether some of these hydrocarbons could have been created deeper in the mantle and formed without organic matter. Now for the first time, researchers have found that ethane and heavier hydrocarbons can be synthesized under conditions of the upper mantle.”
VIDEO – Hydrocarbons in Deep Earth? – http://youtu.be/j5movx6exNY